Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, judgement, comprehension, general knowledge, memory, information processing speed, etc.) and in adaptive behaviour, in a range of areas, including communication, socialization, daily life and motor skills, during the development stage, i.e., before age 18. An intellectual disability diagnosis paves the way to specialized services where needed.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by:
- persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction
- stereotyped behaviours and limited interests
Although symptoms are usually present from early childhood, they could very well surface fully when social demands exceed the individual capacity, such as when children begin school. The symptoms limit or alter daily functioning.
Since May 2013, the term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) encompass the diagnoses previously known as autism, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has redefined what used to be known as pervasive developmental disorder (PPD).
People with a social communication disorder experience persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication, resulting in functional limitations in effective communication, social participation, social relationships, academic achievement, or occupational performance, individually or in combination.